What is Artificial Intelligence and how it will change the world
Are you confused about what really is Artificial Intelligence and what it does? We bring you an ultimate guide on what exactly is Artificial Intelligence and what impact it will put on the human race. It has been speculated that Artificial Intelligence will be our future by many renowned scientists and CEO’s. But many of them also showed concern about machines taking over the world.
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?
Starting from the Siri and Google Assistance to self-driving cars, Artificial Intelligence had shown a great progress. If the experts are to be believed, then Artificial Intelligence(AI) has the power to transform the world. And, it is one of the amazing technologies that will change the world.
John McCarthy, father of Artificial Intelligence(AI) said it is
“The science and Engineering of Making Intelligent Machines, especially Intelligent Computer Programs”.
As the name suggests Artificial Intelligence has artificially added the capability of intelligence certainly to machines. Artificial Intelligence is built to learn or solve – processes typically performed in the human brain. AI can perform tasks like identifying patterns more efficiently than humans, helping business people to get a more broad and covered insight out of their data and many other related tasks.
AI is accomplished by studying how human brain thinks, how it learns, make decisions and work while trying to solve a problem. And using these results of this study as a basis for developing intelligent software and machines that are self-functioning.
TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Specifically, AI can be categorized in any number of ways. But here are two of the general types of the classification.
The first classification of AI system is Weak AI and Strong AI.
- Weak AI also termed as narrow AI, is a system that is designed and trained for a certain particular task. Such type of AI machines excels in a type of chore and are programmed to complete that work efficiently. Most of the machines right now are based on Weak AI or Narrow AI. Virtual personal assistants like Apple’s Siri is an example of weak AI. Machines that outperforms the world champion in Chess are all Weak AI or Narrow AI machines are only designed for this specific work.
- Strong AI is also known as Artificial General Intelligence(AGI). Strong AI involves a system with comprehensive knowledge and cognitive capabilities such that its performance is indistinguishable from that of a human. But, its speed and ability to perform and process data is far greater. Till now, such machine has not been developed. Experts have some different opinions if such type of machine will ever be achievable or not.
The Second Classification of AI is of four types.
This explanation is from Arend Hintze, an assistant professor of integrative professor and computer science and engineering at Michigan State University. His categorization varies around four types in accordance with their existence and non-existence.
TYPE I: REACTIVE MACHINES
Most basic type of machines we have today on AI technology is purely reactive. They have the ability or maybe disability of neither to form memories nor to use past experiences to reach out at current results. Biggest Example of Reactive machines type of AI is Deep Blue IBM’s chess-playing supercomputer. This supercomputer had beaten international grandmaster of chess Garry Kasparov in the 1990s. It is a perfect example of this type of machine.
Deep Blue can identify the pieces on a chess board and also know how each move will change the overall situation of the game. Deep Blue predicts that what next move will prove deadly to his opponent. It chooses the best of the possible opportunities or variables.
It is all reactive and doesn’t have any concept of the past, nor any memory of what happened before. Deep Blue doesn’t make any judgments about the further game, it only chooses from the pieces that stand on the chess boards right now and choose the best possible move.
Similarly, Google’s AlphaGo, which has beaten human Go experts, can’t evaluate future moves nor it has any memory of past.
TYPE 2: LIMITED MEMORY
This type of AI contains machines that can look into the past. These Limited Memory machines can use these past experiences to make future decisions. Some of the self-driving cars use such type of AI system already. These types of self-driving cars observe other cars speed and direction. These observations are included when the car decides to change lanes, to avoid another car or preventing from being hit by other cars.
These observations are added to the preprogrammed representation of the world in car library. But these simple pieces of information are transient. These aren’t saved as the car library of experience from where it can learn from, the way human drivers gather experience over years.
TYPE 3: THEORY OF MIND
It is the part which lies between present AI systems and AI systems of the Future World. However, it is better to be specific to discuss the types of machines we need to form, and what they need to be about. Theory of Mind is a Psychological word. It means the understanding that people, creatures and other objects in this world have their own beliefs, desires, and intentions that make their decisions to vary for the same situation.
Without understanding each other’s desires and intentions, without taking into account what others know either about me or about the environment, working together is almost impossible. If we want AI to be a part of our society and want it ever to walk among us then it must be able to understand that each of us has thoughts, feelings, expectations, and emotions that how we will be treated. However, these type of AI machines with super-gigantic algorithms still seems to be hard-covered on the far side of time.
TYPE 4: SELF-AWARENESS
These are also those type of AI machines that don’t exist right now. This is the step where systems are build that has self-consciousness. This is an extension to the “THEORY OF MIND” AI machines. Ultimately, AI researchers want systems that do not only understand consciousness but build machines that have their own.
Conscious beings are aware of themselves, their behavior and other behavior towards them. However, we are far away of designing machines that are self-aware and self-conscious, we must focus on machines that can learn from past experience and would base best decisions of a situation. These AI machines still seems like a fantasy sci-fi attraction even to optimistic futurists.
APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE(AI)
Right now, the places where AI are dominant are:
- Gaming: The stage of AI which we have achieved right now can easily think of a lot of possibilities for a given set of situations at that time. So, AI plays a crucial role in games like chess, tic-tac-toe, etc. In these games, there are a lot of possible positions only on the basis of current observations and knowledge.
- Business: In business, the level of machines we had designed can be proved really helpful. AI can help business people by having a better and most probable observation on their data. They can provide a better insight result to the businessman so that the profit can be maxed out.
- Handwriting Recognition: The handwriting software based on AI read the text written on the paper. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into an editable form.
There are many other applications of artificial intelligence such as industrial, military use, satellite photo interpretation where it proved to be very helpful till now…
The Upside of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence shows an immense potential of being a revolutionary technology. It can transform the working style of ours by replacing the humans with machines and software algorithms. These machines will work logically because of the technology we termed as Artificial Intelligence or Machine Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence has already put a little click in cars as self-driving cars. Further developments in AI may make manual driving a thing of past. Though, I don’t want to lose the fun of driving just because of automatic driving. Our ways of shopping may also be changed by Artificial Intelligence Shopping Assistance.
The smartphone industry is also encouraged by Artificial Intelligence. Siri is the trademark of Apple which works on Artificial Intelligence and is really helpful to its users. Humans have already controlled these part of lives, so now it may make sense to take an artificial system took over. It can also be proved very helpful on the official level like for a businessman as we already talked about.
TYPE 1 AI Machines can be really trustworthy as we know that they are always going to make the same decisions in the same situation. So, there is no chance of misunderstanding. Driverless cars that are working and are type 2 AI machines are providing a great and revolutionary service to the humans. Now, you don’t need to hire a driver if you don’t know to drive a car.
As we had told you about the machines which are sentient, if those machines are designed they can be proved as a really helpful hand to the human race.
Will AI take over the universe and wipe out the human race?
We have seen that AI is doing really good to serve and ease the problem of humans. But as we all have seen in science fiction movies machines taking their own decisions and ruling the human race causing destruction. So, giving machines their own intelligence can lead to such destruction? It may seem great, machines working on their own but as renowned physicist Stephen Hawking warned
“The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded.”
Elon Musk (CEO of many renowned companies) is the leading doomsayer about the jeopardies of Artificial Intelligence. In World Government Summit at Dubai, Musk stated that
“Sometimes what will happen is a scientist will get so engrossed in their work that they don’t really realize the ramifications of what they’re doing.” He said that the way to escape human obsolescence, in the end, may be by “having some sort of merger of biological intelligence and machine intelligence.”
He is warning us about the dangers of AI from three years now. He has also proposed the idea of controlled AI and believes that man has the power to be his own destroyer. Maybe we are destined to fall in future where Man VS Machine would wipe out wipe out all homo sapiens.
One incident reported by Digital Journal spread like fire across the globe and inflicted more fear about the possibility of apocalyptic nature of AI. The news journal stated that “Researchers at Facebook shut down an artificial intelligence (AI) program after it created its own language. The system developed code words to make communication more efficient and researchers took it offline when they realized it was no longer using English.
It was rather irresponsible and clickbaity act from the authoritative media channels which did not clarify the whole situation. The idea that AI agents creating its own language is a sub-field of AI and have publications from a decade back as reported by CNBC. Edward Grefenstette, a worker at deep mind expressed his rage against such non-sensical journalism on the Twitter.
What f***ing trashy excuse of a journalist writes this sh***y sensationalist s***? DO YOU GUYS NOT HAVE EDITORS??https://t.co/fYXubWIRQN
— Edward Grefenstette (@egrefen) July 29, 2017
Becoming slaves to the machines which are manufactured and designed by us only seems good and entertaining in movies. The significant threat of machines due to AI of operating above human beings as we do above animals and even quite possibly evolve beyond the human ability to understand it is really dangerous and seemed to be a nightmare.
Another AI Advancement – Self-Driving Cars.
Self-Driving Cars as you know, are capable of navigating through roads using environment and human inputs. These cars use a variety of techniques such as radar, laser light, GPS, odometry, and computer vision to run automatically. Projects like Waymo of Google are aiming towards riskless driving by use Artificial Intelligence. But, there are some flaws regarding creating a car that requires no human input and runs in any environment and conditions.
These self-driving cars only know all inside the book.
They don’t have any real experience like real humans. They can do really well in many conditions but in such practical things, you sometimes need to do outside the box. And as our own thoughts that are depicted by sci-fi movies of these machines designed by us and then becoming so smart that they start dominating us is the biggest negative aspect.
That is why there is always a clash of opinions about the development of AI. Some researchers even dream of AI machines of type 4 which can be self-aware and self-conscious. While some are not in the favor of AI even in its primary stage. While some big names had pre-warned the humans about the proper use of this technology like Stephen Hawking mentioned earlier.
Points where Humans completely triumph over Artificial Intelligence
1. Power of Sensing Information
Humans have a variety of senses to consume information laid to them. There are many senses other than basic 5 senses which could not be replicated in advanced AI robots. Senses like Pressure, Itch, Temperature, Pain, Thirst, Hunger, Direction, TimeMuscle, Tension, Proprioception, Equilibrioception, Stretch Receptors, Chemoreceptors are too difficult to infuse in a robot who just understand 1’s and 0’s.
2. Thinking Out of the Box
Now, this is the part in which humans are best at. Though robots can learn from past experiences, they cannot think of a solution to the problem which is unique on its own. Humans have creative minds due to strong neural connections between mind which help us to see a different perspective of the problem. Even if in the far future, they got smarter than us, we could defeat them by using creativity.
3. Logical Reasoning and Judgement of a Situation
Robotic machines may be very good at processing a large amount of data in a short time. But, they don’t know the reason or logic of what they are doing. They can collect important details of a crime scene (say). But, they can’t deduce it like Sherlock Holmes (or even like real life detective) as said by Vamsi of YourStory.
So, Artificial Intelligence is very likely the future of our world even if doesn’t add any value to ordinary people. There is a constant wind of words from the best tech leaders of the world who say that AI will do us more harm than good. But, humans should believe in their qualities that could not be replicated by any kind of algorithmic systems. Also, AI is just an advanced level of coded language and nothing else.
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